Earth photos credit: NASA/Jet propulsion Lab. Modular Martian settlement (artistic representation). Beyond the supply of these very basic resources, it would be quite challenging if not impossible for the colonists to independently produce hi‐tech but vitally important assets such as medicines, electronics and robotics systems, or advanced materials that provide us with a decent quality of life. "Take the first steps towards colonizing Mars: build a base in the desert that will simulate life on the Red Planet." In this essay, a rich diversity of current opinions on the pros and cons of Mars colonization voiced by space enthusiasts with backgrounds in space technology, economics, and materials science are examined. Sending humans to Mars is the wildcard our world needs to change us from a stagnating, inward‐looking society into a problem solving, frontier‐looking society. Considering that a colony on Mars may comprise representatives from different cultural and religious belief systems, it may be difficult to design a policy that would be acceptable to all. Not only can it develop into a complicated legal case for which no precedent exists, it may potentially force the entity in question to take certain measures and as a result jeopardize the success of the mission or program. This situation merits careful legal consideration prior to such a flight. These include the right to decide on the number and spacing of offspring, and the right to attain an appropriate level of sexual and reproductive healthcare. Yes, but not now and not in the near future. These two sets of laws postulate that space resources can indeed be used and exploited by private companies and investors. 1, p. 102. Indeed, the latter is inevitable, both because the laws must evolve to adequately reflect a dynamic socioeconomic and technological environment, as well as for the reasons of human nature, where one has a propensity to take advantage of others.44 With these factors considered, it is difficult to imagine that modern legal systems we currently have on Earth would be appropriate to govern the life on Mars. Further, as the colonist population grows, it is likely that homicides, robberies, and other criminal actions will occur. Yet, what would be considered a harmful effect? These include sales of merchandise, brand partnerships, speaking engagements, and, once the mission is closer to the first human launch to Mars, broadcasting rights, Intellectual Property rights, entertainment content, and events. There have been speculations by Mars colonization enthusiasts, such as Walker and Zubrin that it may be possible for Mars colony to become profitable by exploiting vast domestic resources of deuterium, which can be used as fuel for fusion reactors.69 Yet others, including Musk, argue that it is unlikely that Mars would offer anything material that would be financially viable to export to Earth.70. Indeed, pregnancy termination may be required in instances where pregnancy endangers the life and health of the woman. The realization of Mars One mission to bring humans to Mars is managed by the not‐for‐profit Mars One Foundation, which relies on established aerospace suppliers to develop and assemble its aerospace hardware systems. This is despite decades of training, and a clear understanding that they will return to Earth upon completion of the mission. We should also mention that these considerations are not exclusive to Mars. Ethical considerations and issues around Mars colonization can be intuitively separated into two significantly different groups of questions, namely: Social isolation on Mars would be a great source of stress to the colonists. Reproductive rights are at the core of many legal systems, and as such would apply to colonists that settle on Mars. It should still be wondrous to realize that people took to the air only slightly more than a century ago with the Wright brothers and Santos-Dumont's inventive tenacity culminating in early 1900s. Upon reaching the surface of Mars, the colonists will swap their small spacecraft for an equally restricted base environment (≈50 m2 per person) in which they would spend the vast majority of their time.57 This is because Martian atmosphere is unbreathable for a human, with ≈96% CO2 and <≈1% of O2, as opposed to <≈1% CO2 and 21% of O2 on Earth. The romanticism of being the first to plant a step on the surface of Mars and the overall sense of this effort as being a giant leap for humanity has led to many expressing their strong interest in taking part in the project. Advanced Concepts and Architectures for Plasma-Enabled Material Processing. Let us become productive participants in the glorious dance of life. cathode for low-power Hall thrusters for small satellites No.21 A strong proponent of the idea, Orwig puts forward five reasons for Mars colonization, implicitly stating that establishing a permanent colony of humans on Mars is no longer an option but a real necessity.20. After the technology was shared with a medical practitioner and as a result applied to medical images, such as X‐ray images, it enabled more accurate visualization of breast tissues affected by cancer, and subsequently led to the development of a minimally invasive stereotactic large‐core needle biopsy.25 In a separate study, the sequencing and analysis methods developed by NASA to detect and characterize bacterial species on spacecraft to effectively prevent contamination of other worlds with Earth's biota was used to study the link between microorganisms in breast ductal fluid and breast cancer.26. 12 Falcon Heavy, presently the world's most powerful rocket capable of delivering about 17 tons to Mars surface, was successfully launched on 6 February 2018, demonstrating its capacity to deliver payloads within the framework of Mars One program. If so, who will be financially responsible for retrieving these volunteers and returning them to Earth? Graphene oxide – Based supercapacitors from agricultural wastes: A step to mass production of highly efficient electrodes for electrical transportation systems. On one hand, the early system may capture and be driven by the altruistic nature of early settlers. Indeed, Bruhns and Haqq‐Misra suggest establishing a Mars Secretariat, the role of which would be to formally enable and facilitate diplomatic communication between interested parties. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Innovative Technologies for Market Leadership. Indeed the Outer Space Treaty does not directly prohibit colonization of Mars, but it explicitly states that “States Parties to the Treaty… pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extra‐terrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose” (Outer Space Treaty, Article IX29). From this, one can conclude that the moral and ethical belief system of Martian society would be different to that of their Earthly counterparts, yet these individuals will still be subject to laws of the nation of their citizenship, at least at early stages of colonization.48 Furthermore, the role of these early settlers is to explore their environment and its effects on human body and social structure. 2 Such a discovery would have tremendous scientific and philosophical significance, providing a second, potentially novel example of biochemistry and evolutionary history, and providing evidence for the phenomenon of life being spread across the universe. These capabilities have been discussed in detail in several comprehensive review and opinion articles that describe various opportunities and challenges facing the Mars settlement program.6 Proponents of Mars colonization consider present space technology as nearing the stage when it will be able to provide the necessary level of reliability and efficiency required for the one way journey from Earth to Mars. And is having technological capacity to get there a good enough reason for colonization? Step forward Mars One. That is, they will have no physical means of ever returning to Earth. According to an expert in psychology of space exploration and a Principal Investigator on several NASA‐funded and ESA‐sponsored international psychological research projects Kanas, upon departing Earth on their one way journey to Mars, the crew are likely to experience extreme homesickness, boredom, and loneliness (Figure 3), which can lead to anything from dysphoria to psychosis and suicidal thinking. The economic viability of colonizing Mars has been extensively examined. colonizing the moon. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. However, it should be noted that with recent advancements in miniaturized, energy‐efficient electronic and robotics devices, it may in principle be possible to deliver a highly functional yet compact automated laboratory to Mars. Indeed, the SpaceX Interplanetary Transport System is expected to carry only a small number of passengers, with a real possibility that not all of these individuals would be able to survive the 7–9 month‐long journey and the initial period of settlement and adaptation on Mars. For example, resilience, adaptability, curiosity, creativity, and ability to place trust in others were listed as key traits for applicants to Mars One program, yet it is not clear how these will be measured and evaluated, and which traits will be deemed as not appropriate for the mission. Therefore we find it unlikely that colonizing Mars will gain significant public support right now, but we asses that Mars colonization will likely awake stronger opinions from the public as the technology improves thus making humanity move closer to colonization being a reality. Finally, the general question of the growth of population in Mars colonies could be an issue. Currently, to reduce the possibility of contaminating other worlds with microorganisms from Earth, efforts are made to ensure that both the robotic and human exploration of extra‐terrestrial environments is biologically reversible. Direct current arc plasma thrusters for space applications: basic physics, design and perspectives. Thus, one would expect children to be born on Mars. Caring for such a child would also be quite consuming in terms of time, human and physical resources, potentially redirecting these resources from activities critical to colony survival and development. Feature Life partners. Soon after airplanes took off, space flight advanced to leave Earth's orbit, carrying people (and likely other organisms) beyond our gaseous atmosphere. Unless we face a major cataclysm that would immediately threaten our existence on Earth, it is unlikely that a consensus on whether we need a Martian outpost would be reached any time soon. As it stands now, Mars One and similar projects are likely to continue, evolving and morphing as we learn more about the worlds beyond our own. CrossRef; Google Scholar; Capper, Daniel 2020. This is in stark contrast to expeditions to Mars, where participants are expected to be responsible for their own healthcare and wellbeing and have to exclusively rely on their own human and technological capacity permanently. Would it be possible not to repeat mistakes that we have made when colonizing continents here on Earth? Mars One is known to rely on third‐party vendors for heavy rocket platforms, with the SpaceX Falcon Heavy, and possibly SLS40 and BFR41 being the only realistic options in the near future. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. Mars, however, is a horse of a different color. CrossRef; Google Scholar; Szocik, Konrad Norman, Ziba and Reiss, Michael J. This is not to say that such large‐scale transportation missions are not being seriously considered, and overtime it is expected that these missions would become more affordable and safer. maven (nasa spacecraft) meti international. And there is certainly no lack of volunteers keen to take on the challenge of a 7 month long one‐way journey to the Red Planet. In this case, would their existence become little more than the jogtrot of life, as compared with the standards expected at the Earth?22. In this study, we investigated two unidentified lineages of root-colonizing fungi belonging to the order Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), which were isolated from Festuca vaginata (Poaceae), a dominant grass species in the semiarid sandy grasslands of Hungary. Indeed, will “native” Mars colonists accept newcomers, especially if living conditions are hard? No option of returning home”—writes Erik Seedhouse.59, One of the strongest arguments in favor of Mars colonization is the survival of humankind in the case of a global event that would significantly compromise or even destroy modern civilization, e.g., a global catastrophe that would make Earth no longer habitable for our species. In yet another analogy to the maritime system, the surface of Mars would not belong to any particular country or entity, just as international waters do not belong to any nation. Yet, with every pair of hands and skill set being critical for the success of the colony, to which extent would conventional corrective actions be feasible within the unique environment of a space colony? Below are examples of three different considerations that could play a significant role in such a discussion. Nevertheless, some expect the abortion policy of a Martian colony to be more liberal compared to that on Earth, particularly when it comes to choice based on medical grounds. Presently, in many nations abortion is viewed as a right of women and a matter of private choice, whereas in others it is legally considered a crime. Working off-campus? Probably the strongest ethical argument against colonizing Mars would be if such colonization had the potential to harm any indigenous life forms that might be on Mars… Diagnostics of ion and electron diffusion in pulsed plasma thrusters using neutral gas injection. Although our chances of discovering intelligent life in space are quite low,60 there remains a possibility of discovery of abiogenesis on Mars. For one, the number of available individuals would be small, affecting genetic diversity and increasing the likelihood of recessive genetic disorders. The four topics to be covered will be the journey to Mars, putting humans on Mars, colonizing Mars, and establishing permanent connection with Mars. On Earth, microbial decontamination is widespread and in fact critical to food safety, healthcare, and in many instances our survival. Futures, Vol. Colonization of Mars: As humans gradually overcome technological challenges of deep space missions, the possibility of exploration and colonization of extraterrestrial outposts is being seriously considered by space agencies and commercial entities alike. Apart from these legal considerations, ethical considerations related to the reproduction on Mars may be a significant issue, with some opinions presented in the following section. Similarly, it is difficult to imagine that harsh Martian conditions would be suited for children with severe debilitating medical conditions simply due to the complete lack of infrastructure to afford them a decent quality of life. panspermia. If we can succeed in preserving our current planet and its ecosystems, we save human consciousness and the integrity of our values. Will it be easy for all interested parties to outline and accept such “Mars constitution”? If we can dream of the insurmountable task of becoming multi‐planetary, then surely we can fathom expending the energy, resources and willpower that come with making mindful purchase and waste decisions. Beyond an active target for space exploration, colonization of Mars has become a popular topic nowadays, fuelled by a potentially naive and somewhat questionable belief that this planet could at some point in time be terraformed to sustain human life.1 Indeed, the Moon, while very close, is small, barren and devoid of atmosphere. The question of sovereignty of permanent colonies on the surface of Mars and, possibly, in the Martian orbit is one that at present is not well articulated or defined in the current version of the Outer Space Treaty. The billionaire said that he will take 80,000 space immigrants to the Red Planet who will settle and will begin farming – plowing and sowing – under special domes. Discharge mode transition in a Krypton-fed 1 A-class LaB Should we spend a tremendous amount of intellectual, financial and material resources on a distant dream over addressing immediate and highly pressing problems that threaten our very existence on Earth? Regardless of the country from which it is launched, the rocket produced by an American company will be regarded as an American ship, and, following a very similar approach that governs the behavior of sea‐fairing ships, the space ship would have to abide by the laws of the US legal system. Although Mars One is in part financed through money from donors across 100 countries and their numbers are growing, the donated money is not sufficient to fully finance the operation. Synthesis Lectures on Emerging Engineering Technologies. Life on the Moon base would not differ from that in the lifeless desert, with no hope of ever finding water. Mars is about .5 AU away from Earth. Mars: Among other potential outposts, the Red Planet has always been shrouded by a veil of romanticism and mystery. Isolation and closed environment are some of the known factors to cause psychiatric distress.50 These medical conditions can be as damaging to the overall health of the space traveller and success of the mission as effects of space radiation, bone and muscle loss, and treatment of sustained injuries. Would the legal system and public opinion support the company in their choice of forcefully retaining the volunteer under experimental conditions in accordance with their original properly documented consent agreement? So if a technology like synthetic biology can reliably turn water and CO 2 into useful materials would be ideal for conditions on Mars. At present, these enthusiasts are prepared to sign over their most basic rights of free choice of residence, profession, right to adequate medical treatment and many others for this opportunity. From scientific publications to public forms, there is certainly little consensus on whether colonization of Mars is necessary or even possible, with a rich diversity of opinions that range from categorical It is a necessity!20 to equally categorical Should Humans Colonize Other Planets? As humans have already tamed the planet Earth so now, it’s the time to traverse in to approach the solar system to begin a new race which would cause considerable advancements to benefit the whole civilization. perseverance (nasa rover) mars 2020. magnetospheres. Science 18 Feb 1977: 668 . However, realizing sustainable human reproduction on Mars may not be without its challenges. Knowing the significant risks that cannot be mitigated, how can we make this venture ethical? Indeed, on Earth there are a number of examples of microorganisms that can withstand extreme temperatures, e.g., Pyrococcus furiosus and Pyrolobus fumarii, pH, e.g., Natronobacterium and Clostridium paradoxum, pressures, e.g., Pyrococcus sp., and radiation conditions, e.g., Thermococcus gammatolerans. No instant access to mission control. The proposed activities range from mining asteroids and the Moon to space tourism and development of large‐scale on‐orbit platforms that could offer a range of technical capabilities. Contemporary Buddhism, p. 1. The third argument relates to technological advances related to space exploration, specifically how technologies that we may develop in our effort to colonize Mars may find their way into our daily life and deliver unintended benefits. From this perspective, it is difficult to say what control if any flight organizations would have over the life of the colony. 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