As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed; the number of casualties is actually disputed as some have suggested as many as a million people died. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. Fraude y violencia en las elecciones del Frente Popular." Ein Staatsstreich rechtsgerichteter Teile der Armee gegen die gewählte linke Regierung löst… Second Republic. King Alfonso XIII called for democratic elections, ushering in the Second Republic–the First Republic, formed in 1873, lasted only a year–and five years of social unrest, during which the political right and left vied for control. The constitution established legal procedures for the nationalisation of public services and land, banks, and railways. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Landowners were expropriated. Alcalá Zamora’s professed goal was to “center the Republic,” stabilizing the new regime while avoiding extremes, but he failed altogether in this project. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, President Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government, fearing CEDA's monarchist sympathies. Azana came back to power, he was liberal and wanted to restore the modern policies and release political prisoners, this angered the right. [66] Imposed in the name of neutrality, the international isolation of the Spanish Republic ended up favouring the interests of the future Axis Powers.[67]. Any deviation, even if democratic, was seen as treasonous.[5]. Fifty eight religious buildings including churches, convents and part of the university at Oviedo were burned and destroyed. General Sanjurjo would be the head of this new regime, due to being widely liked and respected within the military, though his position would be a largely symbolic due to his lack of political talent. This gave Mola and the military the perfect excuse to initiate their plan, and eventually the three years of war that followed confirmed the Second Republic's failure. [19], In June 1931 a Constituent Cortes was elected to draft a new constitution, which came into force in December. Asturias 1934. On 12 July 1936, Lieutenant José Castillo, an important member of the anti-fascist military organisation Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA), was shot by Falangist gunmen. mation of the Second Spanish Republic, six decades after the ephemeral and failed first attempt of a republican government. Before long the professional Army of Africa had much of the south and west under the control of the rebels. The UGT, along with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), were the main forces behind the aforementioned social revolution. Catholic churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11 May. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. Coup General Miguel Primo de Rivera overthrew the government and established a dictatorship to prevent the Monarchy from falling. There were numerous mistakes - whether it be the Asturia's uprising (the government's oppressive methods) or the Agrarian Reform Law; by the 1930s all these tension caused by the government had built up, and once the murder in 193 was done, everything escalated. Historians, however, have focused primarily on the Civil War of 1936–39 that followed, devoting much less attention to the parliamentary regime that preceded it. This also illustrates how the Republic managed to anger most classes in Spain. The Second Spanish Republic 1931-39: Historical Overview. [53][54] The involvement of forces of public order and a lack of action against the attackers hurt public opinion of the government. According to all later investigations, the perpetrator of the murder was a socialist gunman, Luis Cuenca, who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto. Bloody purges followed in each piece of captured "Nationalist" territory in order to consolidate Franco's future regime. He took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and was in power 1978, when the … The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. The remaining Republican fronts collapsed, and Madrid fell in March 1939. The Second Republic (1931-1936) The Revolution of October of 1934 • The movement was a failure in most parts of the country. Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. However one must not forget that the Second Republic was established under a difficult time; by the 1930s the working class's resentment towards the wealthy had already been built up (especially after the Economic Depression). If anything, they became even more extremist over time and were quick to take advantage of any opportunity to seize power. He also prevented liberal reforms being introduced before the First World War. The rebellion was quickly repressed by the military. The murder of a parliamentary leader by state police was unprecedented, and the belief that the state had ceased to be neutral and effective in its duties encouraged important sectors of the right to join the rebellion. Not the one? "[27], In 1933, all remaining religious congregations were obliged to pay taxes and banned from industry, trade and educational activities. Beevor, Antony. The Second Spanish Republic. Spain's conflicting history had already been built up by that time too - for example Catalan's demand for autonomy. The Second Republic was formed on April 14, 1931 after local elections returned anti-monarchist representatives in most cities and large towns. These differences became evident in the 1936 elections. The military reform was also a failure; although in theory it would make the army more efficient, in practice this did not happen. Had it taken more care to displease only one section of the population instead of the whole (it is almost impossible to please all classes because of the angering factions in Spain), it may have been able to maintain its support and avoid failure. "Mobilization and political violence following the Spanish general elections of 1936". Convinced that the left was no longer willing to follow the rule of law and that its vision of Spain was under threat, the right abandoned the parliamentary option and began to conspire as to how to best overthrow the republic, rather than taking control of it.[43][44]. [60] However, the separation of church and state was forgotten once the conflict assumed the dimension of a war of religion, and military authorities increasingly deferred to the Church and to the expression of Catholic sentiment. The killing of Calvo Sotelo with police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government's opponents on the right. [57] Mola's plan for the new regime was envisioned as a "republican dictatorship", modelled after Salazar's Portugal and as a semi-pluralist authoritarian regime rather than a totalitarian fascist dictatorship. Second Republic, (1848–52) French republic established after the Revolution of 1848 toppled the July monarchy of King Louis-Philippe. They claimed that the authorities did not properly investigate it and promoted those involved in the murder whilst censoring those who cried out about it and shutting down the headquarters of right-wing parties and arresting right-wing party members, often on "flimsy charges". Home rule was granted to Catalonia, with a local parliament and a president of its own. 58 (2018). Due to Spain's backwardness and the fact that the nation was poor, many people sought to go to extremist parties in search of a solution. Abysmal working conditions, led to the increase of trade unionism as a means to bring about change. "[45], In June 1936 Miguel de Unamuno, disenchanted with the unfolding of the events told a reporter who published his statement in El Adelanto that President Manuel Azaña should commit suicide as a patriotic act.[46]. This cold-blooded murder had an electrifying effect which provided a catalyst to transform what was a "limping conspiracy", led by General Emilio Mola, into a powerful revolt. The north, including the Basque country, fell in late 1937, and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterward. The Spanish Republic (Spanish: República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Spanish: Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The government was, however, unable to curb mob attacks on churches and monasteries, during which priests and nuns were slain. ...read more. [30][31] The miners proceeded to occupy several other towns, most notably the large industrial centre of La Felguera, and set up town assemblies, or "revolutionary committees", to govern the towns that they controlled. Catalonia (1932), the Basque Country (1936) and Galicia (although the Galician Statute of Autonomy couldn't come into effect due to the war) exercised this right, with Aragon, Andalusia and Valencia, engaged in negotiations with the government before the outbreak of the Civil War. No effective action was taken; Payne points to a possible veto by socialists within the government who shielded the killers who had been drawn from their ranks. [39], In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured, while fifty churches and seventy conservative political centres were attacked or set ablaze. The first was led by left-wing republican José Giral (from July to September 1936); however, a revolution inspired mostly on libertarian socialist, anarchist and communist principles broke within the Republic, which weakened the rule of the Republic. [50] Although the nationalist generals were already planning an uprising, the event was a catalyst and a public justification for a coup. The Right Republic was voted in precisely because of the Left's previous failures. Major industries of the Second Spanish Republic were located in the Basque region (due to it having Europe's best high-grade non-phosphoric ore) and Catalonia. Log in now! The liberal republicans’ hopes of establishing an enduring democratic regime were soon [4] A general strike was called by the UGT and the PSOE in the name of the Alianza Obrera. Template:Lead too long Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic was an important area of dispute and tensions between the Catholic hierarchy and the Republic were apparent from the beginning - the establishment of the Republic began 'the most dramatic phase in the contemporary history of both Spain and the Church.' Once the constituent assembly had fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned. Military reform headed by a politician (and civilian), however, did cause alarm. In November 1932, Miguel de Unamuno, one of the most respected Spanish intellectuals, rector of the University of Salamanca, and himself a Republican, publicly raised his voice to protest. However fearing the increasing popular opposition the Radicals and Socialist majority postponed the regular elections, therefore prolonging their way in power for two more years. Potomac Books, Inc., 2005, p.66, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPreston1983 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBeevor2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas2001 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFPreston2006 (. 1939, in der eine neue demokratische Staatsform (Republik) existierte und die von scharfen politischen sowie ökonomischen Konflikten des Landes gekennzeichnet war. Transatlantic Antifascisms: From the Spanish Civil War to the End of World War II. [9] Manuel Azaña Díaz was called upon to form a government before the electoral process had come to an end; he would shortly replace Zamora as president, taking advantage of a constitutional loophole. Successes of the Republic Failures of the Republic Regional Economic / Social Political Military Religious Extension Task: Why did the Spanish Second Republic Fail? Tough GCSE topics broken down and explained by out team of expert teachers, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing with help from our teachers, Get your head around tough topics at A-level with our teacher written guides, Start writing remarkable essays with guidance from our expert teacher team, Understand the tough topics in IB with our teacher written Study Guides, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing from our experienced teachers, Struggling with an assignment? Die Zweite Spanische Republik (spanisch Segunda República Española [seˌɣunda reˈpuβlika espaˌɲola]) bezeichnet in Spanien die Epoche von 1931 bis 1936 bzw. Alfonso XIII became increasingly autocratic and in 1909 was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona. Throughout the country tool, did not endure was rejected by large sectors of best. The PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone and sharp eyes ''... 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