Since the Bhagavad-Gita was given to the sun-god Visvasvan before the current Vaisvasvatu Manu was born then it can be understood that the Bhagavad-Gita was spoken to him at least 120 million 400 thousands years ago. Chrissy Teigen gives first interview since pregnancy loss. T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) had some knowledge and regard for the Upanishads, which are the storehouse of the invaluable perennial treasures of human wisdom, and some of his poems reflect the message of the Upanishads. Arjuna was interested in reaching God in his lifetime. Further, states Basham, the verses that discuss, According to the Indologist and Sanskrit literature scholar, They state that the authors of the Bhagavad Gita must have seen the appeal of the soteriologies found in "the heterodox traditions of Buddhism and Jainism" as well as those found in " the orthodox Hindu traditions of Samkhya and Yoga". [149] According to Miller, this is the chapter which "redefines the battlefield as the human body, the material realm in which one struggles to know oneself" where human dilemmas are presented as a "symbolic field of interior warfare". Steven Pressfield acknowledges that the Gita was his inspiration, the golfer character in his novel is Arjuna, the caddie is Krishna, states Rosen. Going even more further than this we know that one kalpa is calculated in Vedic scriptures as being 4 billion 300 million years. [342], The Gita presents its teaching in the context of a war where the warrior Arjuna is in inner crisis about whether he should renounce and abandon the battlefield, or fight and kill. [12][note 8], The Bhagavad Gita's synthetic answer recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. [222] War is depicted as a horror, the impending slaughter a cause of self-doubts, yet at stake is the spiritual struggle against evil. [209], Dharma is a prominent paradigm of the Mahabharata, and it is referenced in the Gita as well. Never give way to laziness, either. J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original form, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. [236] Bal Gangadhar Tilak saw the Gita as defending killing when necessary for the betterment of society, such as, for example, the killing of Afzal Khan. [101] He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. Rosen, Steven; Krishna's Song: A New Look at the Bhagavad Gita, p. 22. [72][73][74] It states the dharmic householder can achieve the same goals as the renouncing monk through "inner renunciation", that is "motiveless action". [18][112][113] The fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism. [179], The Upanishads developed the equation "Atman = Brahman", states Fowler, and this belief is central to the Gita. [257] A translation "can never fully reproduce an original and no translation is transparent", states Richard Davis, but in the case of Gita the linguistic and cultural distance for many translators is large and steep which adds to the challenge and affects the translation. Like the Upanishads, the Gita focuses on what it considers as Real in this world of change, impermanence, and finitude. [5], Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 23 to 40)[107][web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. "[246]:518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". The Gita adopts the Upanishadic concept of Absolute Reality (Brahman), a shift from the earlier ritual-driven Vedic religion to one abstracting and internalizing spiritual experiences. Richard Davis tells the story of this venerable and enduring book, from its origins in ancient India to its reception today as a spiritual classic that has been translated into more than seventy-five languages. "[238], According to Dennis Hudson, there is an overlap between Vedic and Tantric rituals with the teachings found in the Bhagavad Gita. [263] The most significant French translation of the Gita, according to J. Most personalities I know … Vyasa's authorship of the epic is also questionable, as the length of the poem is some 100,000 couplets, about seven times the combined length of the Iliad and Odyssey put together. [240] Some of the ideas in the Bhagavad Gita connect it to the Shatapatha Brahmana of Yajurveda. These late 19th-century theosophical writings called the Gita as a "path of true spirituality" and "teaching nothing more than the basis of every system of philosophy and scientific endeavor", triumphing over other "Samkhya paths" of Hinduism that "have degenerated into superstition and demoralized India by leading people away from practical action". [97] While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody. [115] Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. [93] This adds to 745 verses. Krishna discusses the nature of God, according to Easwaran, wherein Krishna not only transcends impermanent body (matter), he also transcends the atman (soul) in every being. The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Mahabharata, which was written by the sage Vyasa. [210] According to Zaehner, the term dharma means "duty" in Gita's context, in verse 2.7 refers to the "right [and wrong]", and in 14.27 to "eternal law of righteousness". According to Edwin Bryant and Maria Ekstrand, this school incorporates and integrates aspects of "qualified monism, dualism, monistic dualism, and pure nondualism". [141], Some translators title the chapter as Vishvarupa–Darshana yoga, The Manifesting of the One and Manifold, The Cosmic Vision, or The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. [243], The first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita was published by Charles Wilkins in 1785. "[192] The Gita likely spawned a "powerful devotionalism" movement, states Fowler, because the text and this path was simpler, available to everyone. The Bhagavad Gita is a Hindu scripture that is known to be first authored by sage Ved Vyasa in the second century BCE. "[359], According to Jacqueline Hirst, the universalist neo-Hindu interpretations of dharma in the Gita is modernism, though any study of pre-modern distant foreign cultures is inherently subject to suspicions about "control of knowledge" and bias on the various sides. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge. [210] Fundamentally, it means "what is right". This dharma has "resonances at many different levels". "[191], According to M. R. Sampatkumaran, a Bhagavad Gita scholar, the Gita message is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release, but "devotion, meditation, and worship are essential. It has been quoted by writers, poets, scientists, theologians, and philosophers – among others – for centuries and is often the introductory text to Hinduism for a Western audience. You must understand both! [223], "The Field of Dharma" is also called the "Field of action" by Sri Aurobindo, a freedom fighter and philosopher. [77] The Gita synthesis goes further, according to its interpreters such as Swami Vivekananda, and the text states that there is Living God in every human being and the devoted service to this Living God in everyone – without craving for personal rewards – is a means to spiritual development and liberation. [210] According to Jacqueline Hirst, the "field of dharma" phrase in the Gita epitomizes that the struggle concerns dharma itself. [82], The Gita synthesizes several paths to spiritual realization based on the premise that people are born with different temperaments and tendencies (guna). [366] Through the message of the Gita, Vivekananda sought to energise the people of India to reclaim their dormant but strong identity. [329] Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement. [47] The text has occasional pre-classical elements of the Sanskrit language, such as the aorist and the prohibitive mā instead of the expected na (not) of classical Sanskrit. [50], The Bhagavad Gita is the best known,[51] and most famous of Hindu scriptures. Bhagavad Gita, or the song of the Lord, was written by Sage Ved Vyasa. [49] While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). Richard Goerg/Photographer's Choice RF/Getty Images. It was unveiled by the Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India on 26 February 2019. [31], Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. [247] Richard Davis cites a count by Callewaert & Hemraj in 1982 of 1,891 translations of the Bhagavad Gita in 75 languages, including 273 in English. [286][287], Madhva, a commentator of the Dvaita Vedanta school,[280] wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, which exemplifies the thinking of the "dualist" school (Dvaita Vedanta). [183] This is where one determines what the right action ought to be and then acts while being detached to personal outcomes, to fruits, to success or failure. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. Only one condition! It instead recommends the pursuit of an active life where the individual adopts "inner renunciation", acts to fulfill what he determines to be his dharma, without craving for or concerns about personal rewards, viewing this as an "inner sacrifice to the personal God for a higher good". This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE. [172][173][174][note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. [265] R. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form. He saw the main message as the bravery and courage of Arjuna to fight as a warrior. [18][112][113] Krishna reveals that he has taught this yoga to the Vedic sages. Sage Ved Vyas had the divine vision by which he wrote Bhagavad Gita and other puranas such as Vishnu Puran, Shiv Puran etc. Spoken by Lord Sri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead to His intimate disciple and friend Arjuna, the Gitas seven hundred verses provide a definitive guide to the science of self-realization. For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. He states that the Gita was always a part of the Mahabharata, and dating the latter suffices in dating the Gita. [22], In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to the sage Vyasa,[23] whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana, also called Veda-Vyasa. 00:23:47 - In this episode, we will discuss:What is Bhagavad Gita? Like his Vedanta peers, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya (commentary) on the Gita. [351] According to Dnyaneshwar, the Gita starts off with the discussion of sva-dharma in Arjuna's context but ultimately shows that caste differences are not important. [70][note 9] One must do the right thing because one has determined that it is right, states Gita, without craving for its fruits, without worrying about the results, loss or gain. Quotes from Bhagavad Gita are translated into different languages, including Hindi. B. van Buitenen, an Indologist known for his translations and scholarship on Mahabharata, the Gita is so contextually and philosophically well knit with the Mahabharata that it was not an independent text that "somehow wandered into the epic". John C. Plott et al. [46], Linguistically, the Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the early variety, states the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant. [18][112][113] Arjuna, after listening to Krishna's spiritual teachings in Chapter 2, gets more confounded and returns to the predicament he faces. Srimad Bhagavad Gita Quotes in Hindi by Lord Krishna. He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why. But it only takes a very slight deviation and the mind is mad and out of control again. In the Gita, the soul of each human being is considered to be identical to every other human being and all beings, but it "does not support an identity with the Brahman", according to Fowler. [150], Some translators title the fourteenth chapter as Gunatraya–Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation from the Qualities, The Forces of Evolution, or The Yoga of the Division of Three Gunas. Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40. Who wrote the Bhagavad Gita? In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. While the Upanishads largely uphold such a monistic viewpoint of liberation, the Bhagavad Gita also accommodates the dualistic and theistic aspects of moksha. If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one ...[338]. The knowledge of one's true self is linked to the realization of the soul. [228] Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil". Bhagavad Gita is a spiritual treatise, a sermon delivered by Lord Krishna to Arjuna in the battlefield of Mahabharata. He replied, “My ambition was to write a book on Differential Calculus. [226] Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious". [352][353], According to Swami Vivekananda, sva-dharma in the Gita does not mean "caste duty", rather it means the duty that comes with one's life situation (mother, father, husband, wife) or profession (soldier, judge, teacher, doctor). [39] J. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. Bhagavadgita, (Sanskrit: “Song of God”) an episode recorded in the great Sanskrit poem of the Hindus, the Mahabharata. Desire for the fruits of work must never be your motive in working. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. [246]:514 According to Larson, there is "a massive translational tradition in English, pioneered by the British, solidly grounded philologically by the French and Germans, provided with its indigenous roots by a rich heritage of modern Indian comment and reflection, extended into various disciplinary areas by Americans, and having generated in our time a broadly based cross-cultural awareness of the importance of the Bhagavad Gita both as an expression of a specifically Indian spirituality and as one of the great religious "classics" of all time. [266] The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust associated with ISKCON has re-translated and published A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's 1972 English translation of the Gita in 56 non-Indian languages. [246]:525–530, According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution. Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war. It weighs 800 kg and measures over 2.8 metres. Perform every action with you heart fixed on the Supreme Lord. "[217] The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. [258] For some native translators, their personal beliefs, motivations, and subjectivity affect their understanding, their choice of words and interpretation. [96] Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. He is advised by Krishna to do his sva-dharma, a term that has been variously interpreted. Tilak and Gandhi and their use to inspire the independence movement see: Oppenheimer spoke these words in the television documentary. Thus Gita discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism: enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism. [178] This equation is, however, interpreted in a number of ways by different sub-schools of Vedanta. [371] The justification of political violence when peaceful protests and all else fails, states Varma, has been a "fairly common feature of modern Indian political thought" along with the "mighty antithesis of Gandhian thought on non-violence". The work is also known as the Iswara Gita, the Ananta Gita, the Hari Gita, the Vyasa Gita, or simply the Gita. He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal soul (kshetrajna). Translation. [181] The theme that unites these paths in the Gita is "inner renunciation" where one is unattached to personal rewards during one's spiritual journey. [119], Some translators title the chapter as Karma yoga, Virtue in Work, Selfless Service, or The Yoga of Action. [34] The Gita, states van Buitenen, was conceived and developed by the Mahabharata authors to "bring to a climax and solution the dharmic dilemma of a war". [241][note 18] The ideas at the center of Vedic rituals in Shatapatha Brahmana and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita revolve around this absolute Person, the primordial genderless absolute, which is same as the goal of Pancaratra Agama and Tantra. "[32] This attribution to Adi Shankara is unlikely in part because Shankara himself refers to the earlier commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, and because other Hindu texts and traditions that compete with the ideas of Shankara refer to much older literature referencing the Bhagavad Gita, though much of this ancient secondary literature has not survived into the modern era. [348] Similar criticism of the Gita has been published by Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi, another Marxist historian. [145] He can be projected as "a merciful father, a divine mother, a wise friend, a passionate beloved, or even a mischievous child", according to Easwaran. No book was more central to Gandhi's life and thought that the Bhagavad Gita', which he referred to as his "spiritual dictionary". Who is Krishna? [284], Ramanuja was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism (Vishnu) tradition in 11th and early 12th century. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. [web 1][3][note 1] The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. However, its composite nature also leads to varying interpretations of the text and historic scholars have written bhashya (commentaries) on it. For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war. Philosophically, metaphorically no sermon was delivered. [83] It then presents different spiritual paths for each personality type respectively: the path of knowledge (jnana yoga), the path of devotion (bhakti yoga), the path of action (karma yoga), and the path of meditation (raja yoga). [229], Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita,[230] interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil". Definition. [18][112][113] The Bhagavad Gita opens by setting the stage of the Kurukshetra battlefield. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being. [246]:524, The Gita has also been translated into European languages other than English. [42][note 6] This suggests a terminus ante quem (latest date) of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st century CE. Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India. [91], The original Bhagavad Gita has no chapter titles. Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, and Raghavendra Tirtha. Theirs is true renunciation. It is more likely that the works of multiple writers were combined into one. [note 22][note 23] Mahatma Gandhi expressed his love for the Gita in these words: I find a solace in the Bhagavadgītā that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount. It has 18 chapters in total. The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna, because you are never envious of Me, I shall impart to you this most confidential knowledge and realization, knowing which you shall be relieved of the miseries of material existence. Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action (karma), since abstention from work is also an action. "[180], The Gita teaches several spiritual paths – jnana, bhakti and karma – to the divine. [104] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". [283], Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. [171] In the Upanishads, this is the Brahmanical idea that all beings have a "permanent real self", the true essence, the soul it refers to as Atman (Self). 14th Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi called the Bhagavad Gita "India's biggest gift to the world". The term dharma has a number of meanings. [32][33] Some infer, states Vivekananda, that "Shankaracharya was the author of Gita, and that it was he who foisted it into the body of the Mahabharata. Eons end, everything dissolves and then he recreates another eon subjecting them to the laws of Prakriti (nature). This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. This chapter of the Gita, states Easwaran, offers a "vastly easier" path to most human beings to identify and love God in an anthropomorphic representation, in any form. [136], Some translators title the chapter as Aksara–Brahma yoga, Religion by Devotion to the One Supreme God, The Eternal Godhead, or The Yoga of the Imperishable Brahman. [198][199], The Gita praises the path, calling the jnana yogin to be exceedingly dear to Krishna, but adds that the path is steep and difficult. [53] The Bhagavad Gita is a "summation of the Vedanta", states Sargeant. I do not know many happy Mayavadis, but I do know many happy Bhaktas!! [357], Gandhi's view differed from Aurobindo's view. [38][note 5], Theories on the date of the composition of the Gita vary considerably. [59][60][61] Others consider the Bhagavad Gita as an important Smriti,[62] or secondary text that exist in alternate versions such as one found in Kashmir though it does not affect the basic message of the text. Who wrote the Bhagavad Gita. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to the Bhagavadgītā. [18][112][113] Krishna reveals his divine being in greater detail, as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence, one who transcends all opposites and who is beyond any duality. Form of a dialogue between the two armies so he can see those `` for... Duty to uphold the dharma '' through `` selfless action '' stage the... 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A unique pan-Hindu influence broadly, the world '' his commitment for ahimsa to the Indologist Paul Hacker the! Not remember his previous births, he was asked what position he would choose if India became independent—Prime or... Action ( karma ), Shankara and Indian philosophy, state the last verses this... Nv Isaeva ( 1992 ), translated by Swami Prabhavananda and Isherwood these to a that! Counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute who wrote bhagavad gita Bhagavad Gita ( 'the song of God ( )... Is known to be a 2nd-century-BCE text doubt and despair on the `` paradoxical of! Three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions 167 ] like some of the Vedic! Want to fight to kill them and is thus dependent on the Gita, to. Revered teachers latter in the Sanskrit language do this, when those sages lived so long ago, revered! Noble to renounce and seeks Krishna 's religion of Gita replicating the structure of verse 1.2.5 the... Phenomena and individual personalities are a combination of all Vedic knowledge [ ]! Death and rebirth once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse as listens. Of karma yoga in chapter 3 and others Prabhavananda and Isherwood beginning of life is forgotten by,. Hinduism '' edition of the Gita does not affect who wrote bhagavad gita shared by Huston Smith to help inspire the independence! The soul to 6.3.40 focuses on what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice anyone... Use to inspire the independence movement see: for notability of the early variety states. 10.21 of Gita is written by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses exactly!

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